texture-synthesis VS WaveFunctionCollapse

Compare texture-synthesis vs WaveFunctionCollapse and see what are their differences.


🎨 Example-based texture synthesis written in Rust 🦀 (by EmbarkStudios)


Bitmap & tilemap generation from a single example with the help of ideas from quantum mechanics (by mxgmn)
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texture-synthesis WaveFunctionCollapse
5 98
1,723 21,817
0.3% -
0.0 0.0
8 months ago 6 days ago
Rust C#
Apache License 2.0 GNU General Public License v3.0 or later
The number of mentions indicates the total number of mentions that we've tracked plus the number of user suggested alternatives.
Stars - the number of stars that a project has on GitHub. Growth - month over month growth in stars.
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For example, an activity of 9.0 indicates that a project is amongst the top 10% of the most actively developed projects that we are tracking.


Posts with mentions or reviews of texture-synthesis. We have used some of these posts to build our list of alternatives and similar projects. The last one was on 2022-04-30.


Posts with mentions or reviews of WaveFunctionCollapse. We have used some of these posts to build our list of alternatives and similar projects. The last one was on 2023-09-23.
  • It's Okay to Make Something Nobody Wants
    2 projects | news.ycombinator.com | 23 Sep 2023
    Thank you! And yes, I agree. I was looking at uh https://github.com/mxgmn/WaveFunctionCollapse and wondering if that were applicable here :)

    Have a good day!

  • Kullback–Leibler Divergence
    2 projects | news.ycombinator.com | 22 Aug 2023
    Intuitively, it measures the difference between two probability distributions. It's not symmetric, so it's not quite that, but in my opinion, it's good intuition.

    As motivation, say you're an internet provider, providing internet service to a business. You naturally want to save money, so you perhaps want to compress packets before they go over the wire. Let's say the business you're providing service to also compresses their data, but they've made a mistake and do it inefficiently.

    Let's say the business has, incorrectly, determined the probability distribution for their data to be $q(x)$. That is, they assign probability of seeing symbol $x$ to be $q(x)$. Let's say you've determined the "true" distribution to be $p(x)$. The entropy, or number of bits, they expect to transmit per packet/symbol will be $-\sum p(x) lg(q(x))$. Meaning, they'll compress their stream under the assumption that the distribution is $q(x)$ but the actually probability of seeing a packet, $x$, is $p(x)$, which is why the term $p(x) lg(q(x))$ shows up.

    The number of bits you're transmitting is just $-\sum p(x) lg(p(x))$. Now we ask, how many bits, per packet, is the savings of your method over the businesses? This is $-\sum p(x) lg(q(x)/p(x))$, which is exactly the Kullback-Leibler divergence (maybe up to a sign difference).

    In other words, given a "guess" at a distribution and the "true" distribution, how bad is it between them? This is the Kullback-Leibler distribution and why it shows up (I believe) in machine learning and fitness functions.

    As a more concrete example, I just ran across a paper talking [0] about using WFC [1] to asses how well it, and other algorithms, do when trying to create generative "super mario brothers" like levels. Take a 2x2 or 3x3 grid, make a library of tiles, use that to generate a random level, then use the K-L divergence to determine how well your generative algorithm has done compared to the observed distribution from an example image.

    [0] https://arxiv.org/pdf/1905.05077.pdf

    [1] https://github.com/mxgmn/WaveFunctionCollapse

  • collapsed
    2 projects | /r/generative | 25 Mar 2023
    wave function collapse studies - this is done with the https://github.com/mxgmn/WaveFunctionCollapse algorithm after I saw https://github.com/CodingTrain/Wave-Function-Collapse mention it. done in P5! IG https://www.instagram.com/ronivonu/
  • Wave Function Collapse - A stateful node graph framework (constraint problems, procedural generation, etc.)
    2 projects | /r/rust | 6 Dec 2022
    Inspiration and entropy propagation algorithm derived from https://github.com/mxgmn/WaveFunctionCollapse.
  • Ask HN: What weird technical scene are you fond/part of?
    25 projects | news.ycombinator.com | 21 Nov 2022

    Craig Reynolds said the name "Boids" was inspired by The Producers Concierge scene, so that's how you should pronounce it:

    Boids. Dirty, disgusting, filthy, lice ridden Boids. Boids. You get my drift?


    The other really cool rabbit hole to explore for generating tiles and even arbitrary graph based content (I'm sold: hexagons are the bestagons!) is "Wave Function Collapse", which doesn't actually have anything to do with quantum mechanics (it just sounds cool), but is actually a kind of constraint solver related to sudoku solvers.


    Maxim Gumin's work: https://github.com/mxgmn/WaveFunctionCollapse

    Paul Merrell's work:



    Oskar StĂĄlberg's work:



    There's a way to define cellular automata rules by giving examples of the before and after patterns, and WFC is kind of like a statistical constraint solving version of that.

    So it's really easy for artists to define rules just by drawing! Not even requiring any visual programming, but you can layer visual programming on top of it.

    That's something that Alexander Repenning's "AgentSheets" supported (among other stuff): you could define cellular automata rules by before-and-after examples, wildcards and variables, and attach additional conditions and actions with a visual programming language.

    AgentSheets and other cool systems are described in this classic paper: “A Taxonomy of Simulation Software: A work in progress” from Learning Technology Review by Kurt Schmucker at Apple. It covered many of my favorite systems.


    Chaim Gingold wrote a comprehensive "Gadget Background Survey" at HARC, which includes AgentSheets, Alan Kay's favorites: Rockey’s Boots and Robot Odyssey, and Chaim's amazing SimCity Reverse Diagrams and lots of great stuff I’d never seen before:


    Chaim Gingold has analyzed the SimCity (classic) code and visually documented how it works, in his beautiful "SimCity Reverse Diagrams":

    >SimCity reverse diagrams: Chaim Gingold (2016).

    >These reverse diagrams map and translate the rules of a complex simulation program into a form that is more easily digested, embedded, disseminated, and and discussed (Latour 1986).

    >The technique is inspired by the game designer Stone Librande’s one page game design documents (Librande 2010). If we merge the reverse diagram with an interactive approach—e.g. Bret Victor’s Nile Visualization (Victor 2013), such diagrams could be used generatively, to describe programs, and interactively, to allow rich introspection and manipulation of software.

    >Latour, Bruno (1986). “Visualization and cognition”. In: Knowledge and Society 6 (1986), pp. 1– 40. Librande, Stone (2010). “One-Page Designs”. Game Developers Conference. 2010. Victor, Bret (2013). “Media for Thinking the Unthinkable”. MIT Media Lab, Apr. 4, 2013.


    Agentsheets: Alexander Repenning (1993–)

    Interacting agents are embedded and interact within

  • how would you avoid making your randomly generated map look like a mess?
    2 projects | /r/gamedesign | 27 Oct 2022
    I thought you were kidding but it's an actual thing!
  • ggez Falling Sand Simulation: Best way to draw massive amount of individual pixels every frame
    4 projects | /r/rust_gamedev | 8 Oct 2022
    https://github.com/mxgmn/WaveFunctionCollapse - Honorable mention, same guy.
  • Ultra-high resolution (4900x800) generation in 1 step, 3GB memory, no manual editing, pure stable-diffusion
    6 projects | /r/StableDiffusion | 26 Sep 2022
    Neat! This approach reminds me a lot of Wave Function Collapse.
  • Wave Function Collapse
    2 projects | /r/gamedev | 12 Sep 2022
    Initial source of inspiration: https://github.com/mxgmn/WaveFunctionCollapse
  • Yeah, I'll call this variable viscosity
    2 projects | /r/ProgrammerHumor | 4 Sep 2022
    It is actually a pretty new algorithm for procedural content generation. Check out this repo

What are some alternatives?

When comparing texture-synthesis and WaveFunctionCollapse you can also consider the following projects:

ebsynth - Fast Example-based Image Synthesis and Style Transfer

eShopOnContainers - Cross-platform .NET sample microservices and container based application that runs on Linux Windows and macOS. Powered by .NET 7, Docker Containers and Azure Kubernetes Services. Supports Visual Studio, VS for Mac and CLI based environments with Docker CLI, dotnet CLI, VS Code or any other code editor.

Raylib-cs - C# bindings for raylib, a simple and easy-to-use library to learn videogames programming

OpenFK - An open source replacement for the U.B. Funkeys executable.

DeBroglie - DeBroglie is a C# library implementing the Wave Function Collapse algorithm with support for additional non-local constraints, and other useful features.

dnSpy-Unity-mono - Fork of Unity mono that's used to compile mono.dll with debugging support enabled


v2ray-core - A platform for building proxies to bypass network restrictions.

Wox - Launcher for Windows, an alternative to Alfred and Launchy.

CodeHub - CodeHub is an iOS application written using Xamarin

v2rayN - A GUI client for Windows, support Xray core and v2fly core and others

MarkovJunior - Probabilistic language based on pattern matching and constraint propagation, 153 examples