What's New in Python 3.12

This page summarizes the projects mentioned and recommended in the original post on news.ycombinator.com

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  • mypy

    Optional static typing for Python

    PEP 695 is great. I've been using mypy every day at work in last couple years or so with very strict parameters (no any type etc) and I have experience writing real life programs with Rust, Agda, and some Haskell before, so I'm familiar with strict type systems. I'm sure many will disagree with me but these are my very honest opinions as a professional who uses Python types every day:

    * Some types are better than no types. I love Python types, and I consider them required. Even if they're not type-checked they're better than no types. If they're type-checked it's even better. If things are typed properly (no any etc) and type-checked that's even better. And so on...

    * Having said this, Python's type system as checked by mypy feels like a toy type system. It's very easy to fool it, and you need to be careful so that type-checking actually fails badly formed programs.

    * The biggest issue I face are exceptions. Community discussed this many times [1] [2] and the overall consensus is to not check exceptions. I personally disagree as if you have a Python program that's meticulously typed and type-checked exceptions still cause bad states and since Python code uses exceptions liberally, it's pretty easy to accidentally go to a bad state. E.g. in the linked github issue JukkaL (developer) claims checking things like "KeyError" will create too many false positives, I strongly disagree. If a function can realistically raise a "KeyError" the program should be properly written to accept this at some level otherwise something that returns type T but 0.01% of the time raises "KeyError" should actually be typed "Raises[T, KeyError]".

    * PEP 695 will help because typing things particularly is very helpful. Often you want to pass bunch of Ts around but since this is impractical some devs resort to passing "dict[str, Any]"s around and thus things type-check but you still get "KeyError" left and right. It's better to have "SomeStructure[T]" types with "T" as your custom data type (whether dataclass, or pydantic, or traditional class) so that type system has more opportunities to reject bad programs.

    * Overall, I'm personally very optimistic about the future of types in Python!

    [1] https://github.com/python/mypy/issues/1773

  • willow

    Open source, local, and self-hosted Amazon Echo/Google Home competitive Voice Assistant alternative

    Shameless self-plug but with my project Willow[0] we have a management server implementation to deal with multiple devices, etc. We have a new feature called "Willow One Wake" that takes the incoming audio amplitude when wake word is detected and uses our Willow Application Server (python) to only activate wake on the device closest to the person speaking. Old and tired compared to the commercial stuff but a first in the open source space.

    The asyncio improvements in Python 3.12 especially (plus perf generally) have been instrumental in enabling real world use of this. With Python 3.12 asyncio, uvloop, and FastAPI it works remarkably well[1]. As the demo video shows not only does it not delay responsiveness, it has granularity down to inches.

    [0] - https://heywillow.io/

    [1] - https://youtu.be/qlhSEeWJ4gs

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  • jmespath.py

    JMESPath is a query language for JSON.

    For JSON there is the `jmespath` library which might help.


  • CPython

    The Python programming language

    I haven't even used Python for like four years now, but all of these suggestions to do try except and get.key() or {} seem to be ignoring that Python has had a defaultdict in the standard library for, I don't even know, at least the last decade and a half, as long as I've been paying attention. It's even written in C: https://github.com/python/cpython/blob/d9246c7b734b8958da034....

  • bl

    Black Earth core library

    I created a "NoDict" class that does this awhile back: https://github.com/BlackEarth/bl/blob/main/bl/no.py

  • WorkOS

    The modern API for authentication & user identity. The APIs are flexible and easy-to-use, supporting authentication, user identity, and complex enterprise features like SSO and SCIM provisioning.

NOTE: The number of mentions on this list indicates mentions on common posts plus user suggested alternatives. Hence, a higher number means a more popular project.

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