In Apache Calcite, the cost is modeled as a scalar representing the number of rows being processed.
Apache Spark - A unified analytics engine for large-scale data processing
In Catalyst, the Apache Spark optimizer, the cost is a vector of the number of rows and the number of bytes being processed. The vector is converted into a scalar value during comparison.
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Official repository of Trino, the distributed SQL query engine for big data, formerly known as PrestoSQL (https://trino.io)
In Presto/Trino, the cost is a vector of estimated CPU, memory, and network usage. The vector is also converted into a scalar value during comparison.
CockroachDB - the open source, cloud-native distributed SQL database.
In CockroachDB, the cost is an abstract 64-bit floating-point scalar value.
Does Java have an open source package that can execute SQL on txt/csv?
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Apache Drill: the reports of my death have been greatly exaggerated
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Memoization in Cost-based Optimizers
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Apache Hive in the vein!
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