Magisk module to replace the SUPL provider in gps.conf
Either of your proposed solutions sound like they would work, although I don't know for sure how to redirect SUPL to another server, as I've never done it, but it looks like this Magisk module may help. I recall that Nokia used to run one such server, and there on the module's GitHub it mentions a Sony Ericsson server, and I think some Chinese-brand phones use Chinese servers. I'm not sure if any of that sounds like a good option to you! I don't think there are very many SUPL servers around.
The #1 open-source Android GNSS/GPS test program
Something else you may try, but which doesn't give precise information, is whether in GPSTest, you can "Inject PSDS data" (stands for "Predicted Satellite Data Service", described here). If it fails, well, that's one method your phone doesn't use.
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