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Coroutines, async/await and general multicore support in the type system. Most languages by now either have some variant of async / await (JavaScript, Kotlin, Swift, Rust) or superlightweight threads (Go, Elixir, Java via Project Loom), or they just have Monads which supersede coroutines entirely (Haskell, Scala). It's at the point where some say a language isn't suitable for production if it doesn't have good multicore support (also see Rust speeding through getting async/await even though they already have Send + Sync). Even Python and C++ have coroutines now, and of course there is a coroutine library for C which uses macros and lowlevel magic.

Linear/affine (substructural) types. Rust has them and is doing great, Haskell has implemented them as a “new experimental”kind of thing. Other languages are looking to incorporate some variant or alternative to Rust’s borrowing rules: Mojo (the hypedup “AI” language) includes them, and Vallang has mutable value semantics which are similar.

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Effect systems and Algebraic effects. ocaml has just released a strippeddown effect system. People are also working on Effect systems for Haskell (eff, fusedeffects, effet). Koka is a language built with effects first and foremost and it’s rapidly gaining popularity. Unison also has effects.

Gradual typing. This is what TypeScript is: you have some typed values and untyped values, and want to verify and possibly optimize the typed code while permitting the untyped code to compile. Besides JavaScript/TypeScript, you'll find gradual typing on pretty much any other popular untyped language including Python, Lua, and Racket. Mojo is also going to have gradual typing.

Most of the proof assistants out there: Lean, Coq, Dafny, Isabelle, F*, Idris 2, and Agda. And the main concepts are dependent types, Homotopy Type Theory AKA HoTT, and Category Theory. Warning: HoTT and Category Theory are really dense, you're going to really need to research them.

Most of the proof assistants out there: Lean, Coq, Dafny, Isabelle, F*, Idris 2, and Agda. And the main concepts are dependent types, Homotopy Type Theory AKA HoTT, and Category Theory. Warning: HoTT and Category Theory are really dense, you're going to really need to research them.

Formal methods. This is not in most generalpurpose programming languages and probably never will be (maybe we'll see formal methods to verify unsafe code in Rust...) because it's a ton of boilerplate (you have to help the compiler typecheck your code) and also extremely complicated. However, formal methods is very important for proving code secure, such as sel4 (microkernel formally verified to not have bugs or be exploitable) which has just received the ACM Software Systems Award 3 days ago.

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Most of the proof assistants out there: Lean, Coq, Dafny, Isabelle, F*, Idris 2, and Agda. And the main concepts are dependent types, Homotopy Type Theory AKA HoTT, and Category Theory. Warning: HoTT and Category Theory are really dense, you're going to really need to research them.

Most of the proof assistants out there: Lean, Coq, Dafny, Isabelle, F*, Idris 2, and Agda. And the main concepts are dependent types, Homotopy Type Theory AKA HoTT, and Category Theory. Warning: HoTT and Category Theory are really dense, you're going to really need to research them.

Most of the proof assistants out there: Lean, Coq, Dafny, Isabelle, F*, Idris 2, and Agda. And the main concepts are dependent types, Homotopy Type Theory AKA HoTT, and Category Theory. Warning: HoTT and Category Theory are really dense, you're going to really need to research them.

Secure computing. This includes Fully Homomorphic Encryption AKA FHE, of which there is a language/compiler which just got released and Google's older FHE compiler. FHE is probably more "compiler" than "type system", e.g. Google's compiler works on C++. Also Security Type Systems which include Oblivious data structures and Oblivious ADTs.

coq
Coq is a formal proof management system. It provides a formal language to write mathematical definitions, executable algorithms and theorems together with an environment for semiinteractive development of machinechecked proofs.
Most of the proof assistants out there: Lean, Coq, Dafny, Isabelle, F*, Idris 2, and Agda. And the main concepts are dependent types, Homotopy Type Theory AKA HoTT, and Category Theory. Warning: HoTT and Category Theory are really dense, you're going to really need to research them.

Firstclass distributed and multicore computing. Swift has firstclass “actors” and “distributed” methods. Unison, Erlang, and Elixir are built with distributed being one of the #1 concerns. Though firstclass is not super common and I don't really expect it to be because usually libraries are enough (e.g. Scala has Akka and is used WIDELY for distributed); whereas something like linear types and typed effects, you can't emulate in a library.

I would add that Equality saturation/Egraphs has become quite a hot topic recently, since their POPL21 paper, with workshops dedicated to applications of egraphs. They have even recently been added to Cranelift as an IR for optimizations.

I would add that Equality saturation/Egraphs has become quite a hot topic recently, since their POPL21 paper, with workshops dedicated to applications of egraphs. They have even recently been added to Cranelift as an IR for optimizations.

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