wuffs VS stb

Compare wuffs vs stb and see what are their differences.


stb single-file public domain libraries for C/C++ (by nothings)
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wuffs stb
80 164
3,743 25,071
1.7% -
9.4 6.7
about 11 hours ago 9 days ago
GNU General Public License v3.0 or later GNU General Public License v3.0 or later
The number of mentions indicates the total number of mentions that we've tracked plus the number of user suggested alternatives.
Stars - the number of stars that a project has on GitHub. Growth - month over month growth in stars.
Activity is a relative number indicating how actively a project is being developed. Recent commits have higher weight than older ones.
For example, an activity of 9.0 indicates that a project is amongst the top 10% of the most actively developed projects that we are tracking.


Posts with mentions or reviews of wuffs. We have used some of these posts to build our list of alternatives and similar projects. The last one was on 2024-02-04.
  • Still no love for JPEG XL: Browser maker love-in snubs next-gen image format
    7 projects | news.ycombinator.com | 4 Feb 2024
    Maybe this is what you are looking for:


    "Wuffs is a memory-safe programming language (and a standard library written in that language) for Wrangling Untrusted File Formats Safely."

  • 4-year campaign backdoored iPhones using possibly the most advanced exploit
    1 project | news.ycombinator.com | 27 Dec 2023
    It could author its format parsers in https://github.com/google/wuffs, and make them BSD-like open source to maximize adoption.

    An even bigger change: It could allow users to choose their iMessage client freely. Why not open up the protocol? Iā€™m sure a security focused client would be popular and in the grand scheme of things easy to author.

    Perhaps they could open up more of the OS and apps. Perhaps their claims about the security of users and the App Store is kind of BS.

  • Just about every Windows/Linux device vulnerable to new LogoFAIL firmware attack
    4 projects | news.ycombinator.com | 6 Dec 2023
    This is one of the reasons I'm a big fan of wuffs[0] - it specifically targets dealing with formats like pictures, safely, and the result drops in to a C codebase to make the compat/migration story easy.

    [0] https://github.com/google/wuffs

  • Google assigns a CVE for libwebp and gives it a 10.0 score
    5 projects | news.ycombinator.com | 26 Sep 2023
    There are already huffman-decoding and some parts of webp algorithms in https://github.com/google/wuffs (language that finds missing bounds checks during compilations). In contrary, according to readme, this language allows to write more optimized code (compared to C). WEBP decoding is stated as a midterm target in the roadmap.
  • The WebP 0day
    6 projects | news.ycombinator.com | 21 Sep 2023
    Specifically, since performance is crucial for this type of work, it should be written in WUFFS. WUFFS doesn't emit bounds checks (as Java does and as Rust would where it's unclear why something should be in bounds at runtime) it just rejects programs where it can't see why the indexes are in-bounds.


    You can explicitly write the same checks and meet this requirement, but chances are since you believe you're producing a high performance piece of software which doesn't need checks you'll instead be pulled up by the fact the WUFFS tooling won't accept your code and discover you got it wrong.

    This is weaker than full blown formal verification, but not for the purpose we care about in program safety, thus a big improvement on humans writing LGTM.

  • What If OpenDocument Used SQLite?
    8 projects | news.ycombinator.com | 18 Sep 2023
    > parsing encoded files tends to introduce vulnerabilities

    If we are talking about binary formats, now there are systematic solutions like https://github.com/google/wuffs that protect against vulnerabilities. But SQLite is not just a format - it's an evolving ecosystem with constantly added features. And the most prominent issue was not even in core, it was in FTS3. What will SQLite add next? More json-related functions? Maybe BSON? It is useful, but does not help in this situation.

    Regarding traces, there are many forensics tools and even books about forensic analysis of SQLite databases. In well-designed format such tools should not exist in the first place. This is hard requirement: if it requires rewriting the whole file - then so be it.

  • CVE-2023-4863: Heap buffer overflow in WebP (Chrome)
    18 projects | news.ycombinator.com | 12 Sep 2023
    I agree that Wuffs [1] would have been a very good alternative! If it can be made more generally. AFAIK Wuffs is still very limited, in particular it never allows dynamic allocation. Many formats, including those supported by Wuffs the library, need dynamic allocation, so Wuffs code has to be glued with unverified non-Wuffs code [2]. This only works with simpler formats.

    [1] https://github.com/google/wuffs/blob/main/doc/wuffs-the-lang...

    [2] https://github.com/google/wuffs/blob/main/doc/note/memory-sa...

  • NSO Group iPhone Zero-Click, Zero-Day Exploit Captured in the Wild
    3 projects | news.ycombinator.com | 7 Sep 2023
    There are efforts to do that, notably https://github.com/google/wuffs

    RLBox is another interesting option that lets you sandbox C/C++ code.

    I think the main reason is that security is one of those things that people don't care about until it is too late to change. They get to the point of having a fast PDF library in C++ that has all the features. Then they realise that they should have written it in a safer language but by that point it means a complete rewrite.

    The same reason not enough people use Bazel. By the time most people realise they need it, you've already implemented a huge build system using Make or whatever.

  • Ask HN: Wuffs Examples for Text Files?
    1 project | news.ycombinator.com | 22 May 2023
    I finally have time to try out wuffs (https://github.com/google/wuffs), which I first heard about here on HN. I want to develop a low-level tokenizer for SDF files, a small-molecule structure file format which started in the 1970s, with lots of, let's call it 'heritage'. Wuffs' ability to process near the data, with a coroutine-like interface, seems like a good fit.

    I got the "hello-wuffs-c" example to work, which took some tinkering (see wuffs issue #24). That reads a single string and returns an unsigned int. Despite looking at the example implementations for json parsing, I can't figure out how to go from that example to something which handles multiple input buffer blocks, with string tokens that might straddle two buffers.

    Nor could I find third-party examples of people using wuffs-the-language beyond basic experimentation for simple binary data. The handful of non-trivial examples I found only used wuffs-the-library, as a vendored component in a larger project.

    The lack of wuffs-the-language use after several years seems a strong sign that I shouldn't look to wuffs for my project. Given the 'workarounds' in #24 are still present after 3 years, it doesn't even seem that widely internally at Google.

    Does anyone here have experience to share, or pointers to related projects?

  • FaaS in Go with WASM, WASI and Rust
    5 projects | news.ycombinator.com | 7 May 2023
    Here's an off-topic answer.

    Depends on what you want your toy language to do and what sort of runtime support you'd like to lean on.

    JVM is pretty good for a lot of script-y languages, does impose overhead of having a JVM around. Provides GC, Threads, Reflection, consistent semantics. Tons of tools, libraries, support.

    WebAssembly is constrained (for running-in-a-browser safety reasons) but then you get to run your code in a browser, or as a service, etc, and Other People are working hard on the problem of getting your WA to go fast. That used to be a big reason for using JVM, but it turns out that Security Is Darn Hard.

    I have used C in the (distant) past as an IL, and that works up to a point, implementing garbage collection can be a pain if that's a thing that you want. C compilers have had a lot of work on them over the years, and you also have access to some low-level stuff, so if you were E.G. trying to come up with a little language that had super-good performance, C might be a good choice. (See also, [Wuffs](https://github.com/google/wuffs), by Nigel Tao et al at Google).

    A suggestion, if you do target C -- don't work too hard to find isomorphisms between C's data structures and YourToyLang's data structures. Back around 1990, I did my C-generating compiler for Modula-3, and a friend at Xerox PARC used C as a target for Cedar Mesa, and Hans used it in a lower-level way (so I was mapping between M-3 records and C structs, for example, Hans was not) and the lower-level way worked better -- i.e., I chose poorly. It worked, but lower-level worked better.

    If you are targeting a higher-level language, Rust and Go both seem like interesting options to me. Both have the disadvantage that they are still changing slightly but you get interesting "services" from the underlying VM -- for Rust, the borrow checker, plus libraries, for Go, reflection, goroutines, and the GC, plus libraries.

    Rust should get you slightly higher performance, but I'd worry that you couldn't hide the existence of the borrow checker from your toy language, especially if you wanted to interact with Rust libraries from YTL. If you wanted to learn something vaguely publishable/wider-interesting, that question right there ("can I compile a TL to Rust, touch the Rust libraries, and not expose the borrow checker? No+what-I-tried/Yes+this-worked") is not bad.

    I have a minor conflict of interest suggesting Go; I work on Go, usually on the compiler, and machine-generated code makes great test data. But regarded as a VM, I am a little puzzled why it hasn't seen wider use, because the GC is great (for lower-allocation rates than Java however; JVM GC has higher throughout efficiency, but Go has tagless objects, interior pointer support, and tiny pause times. Go-the-language makes it pretty easy to allocate less.) Things Go-as-a-VM currently lacks:

    - tail call elimination (JVM same)


Posts with mentions or reviews of stb. We have used some of these posts to build our list of alternatives and similar projects. The last one was on 2024-01-09.
  • Lessons learned about how to make a header-file library (2013)
    1 project | news.ycombinator.com | 28 Feb 2024
  • Nebula is an open-source and free-to-use modern C++ game engine
    6 projects | news.ycombinator.com | 9 Jan 2024
    Have you considered not using an engine at all, in favor of libraries? There are many amazing libraries I've used for game development - all in C/C++ - that you can piece together:

    * General: [stb](https://github.com/nothings/stb)

  • STB: Single-file public domain libraries for C/C++
    4 projects | news.ycombinator.com | 6 Jan 2024
  • Writing a TrueType font renderer
    9 projects | news.ycombinator.com | 1 Jan 2024
    Great to see more accessible references on font internals. I have dabbled on this a bit last year and managed to have a parser and render the points of a glyph's contour (I stopped before Bezier and shape filling stuff). I still have not considered hinting, so it's nice that it's covered. What helped me was an article from the Handmade Network [1] and the source of stb_truetype [2] (also used in Dear ImGUI).

    [1] https://handmade.network/forums/articles/t/7330-implementing....

    [2] https://github.com/nothings/stb/blob/master/stb_truetype.h

  • Capturing the WebGPU Ecosystem
    9 projects | news.ycombinator.com | 11 Nov 2023
    So I read through the materials on mesh shaders and work graphs and looked at sample code. These won't really work (see below). As I implied previously, it's best to research/discuss these sort of matters with professional graphics programmers who have experience actually using the technologies under consideration.

    So for the sake of future web searchers who discover this thread: there are only two proven ways to efficiently draw thousands of unique textures of different sizes with a single draw call that are actually used by experienced graphics programmers in production code as of 2023.

    Proven method #1: Pack these thousands of textures into a texture atlas.

    Proven method #2: Use bindless resources, which is still fairly bleeding edge, and will require fallback to atlases if targeting the PC instead of only high end console (Xbox Series S|X...).

    Mesh shaders by themselves won't work: These have similar texture access limitations to the old geometry/tessellation stage they improve upon. A limited, fixed number of textures still must be bound before each draw call (say, 16 or 32 textures, not 1000s), unless bindless resources are used. So mesh shaders must be used with an atlas or with bindless resources.

    Work graphs by themselves won't work: This feature is bleeding edge shader model 6.8 whereas bindless resources are SM 6.6. (Xbox Series X|S might top out at SM 6.7, I can't find an authoritative answer.) It looks like work graphs might only work well on nVidia GPUs and won't work well on Intel GPUs anytime soon (but, again, I'm not knowledgeable enough to say this authoritatively). Furthermore, this feature may have a hard dependency on using bindless to begin with. That is, I can't tell if one is allowed to execute a work graph that binds and unbinds individual texture resources. And if one could do such a thing, it would certainly be slower than using bindless. The cost of bindless is paid "up front" when the textures are uploaded.

    Some programmers use Texture2DArray/GL_TEXTURE_2D_ARRAY as an alternative to atlases but two limitations are (1) the max array length (e.g. GL_MAX_ARRAY_TEXTURE_LAYERS) might only be 256 (e.g. for OpenGL 3.0), (2) all textures must be the same size.

    Finally, for the sake of any web searcher who lands on this thread in the years to come, to pack an atlas well a good packing algorithm is needed. It's harder to pack triangles than rectangles but triangles use atlas memory more efficiently and a good triangle packing will outperform the fancy new bindless rendering. Some open source starting points for packing:



  • Www Which WASM Works
    2 projects | news.ycombinator.com | 24 Sep 2023
    The STB headers are mostly built like that: https://github.com/nothings/stb

    You could also add an optional 'convenience API' over the lower-level flexible-but-inconvenient core API, as long as core library can be compiled on its own.

    In essence it's just a way to decouple the actually important library code from runtime environment details which might be better implemented outside the C/C++ stdlib.

    It's already as simple as the stdlib IO functions not being asynchrononous while many operating systems provide more modern alternatives. For a specific type of library (such an image decoder) it's often better to delegate such details to the library user instead of circumventing the stdlib and talking directly to OS APIs.

  • File for Divorce from LLVM
    9 projects | news.ycombinator.com | 29 Jun 2023
    My stuff for instance:


    ...inspired by:


    But it's not so much about the build system, but requiring a separate C/C++ compiler toolchain (Rust needs this, Zig currently does not - unless the proposal is implemented).

  • What C libraries do you use the most?
    4 projects | /r/C_Programming | 29 Jun 2023
    STB Libraries: https://github.com/nothings/stb
  • [Noob Question] How do C programmers get around not having hash maps?
    3 projects | /r/C_Programming | 22 Jun 2023
    stb_ds is also very popular.
  • Is there an existing multidimensional hash table implementation in C?
    4 projects | /r/C_Programming | 20 Jun 2023

What are some alternatives?

When comparing wuffs and stb you can also consider the following projects:

png-decoder - A pure-Rust, no_std compatible PNG decoder

Vcpkg - C++ Library Manager for Windows, Linux, and MacOS

csharplang - The official repo for the design of the C# programming language

imgui-node-editor - Node Editor built using Dear ImGui

image-png - PNG decoding and encoding library in pure Rust

ZXing - ZXing ("Zebra Crossing") barcode scanning library for Java, Android

highway - Performance-portable, length-agnostic SIMD with runtime dispatch

freetype-gl - OpenGL text using one vertex buffer, one texture and FreeType

kandria - A post-apocalyptic actionRPG. Now on Steam!

ImageMagick - šŸ§™ā€ā™‚ļø ImageMagick 7

rust - Rust for the xtensa architecture. Built in targets for the ESP32 and ESP8266

Cppcheck - static analysis of C/C++ code